Kvindekongres London 1899


INTERNATIONAL KVINDEKONGRES I LONDON – PRESSE FØR OG EFTER – EMMA GADS FOREDRAG


Ringsted Folketidende, 17. juni 1899.

Ved den internationale Kvindekongres i London vil i Følge “Nationaltidende” følgende danske som indbudte Talere deltage i Forhandlingerne: Frk. Sophy Christensen, Frk. Elisabeth Gad, Fru Emma Gad, Fru Nelly Hansen, Fru Dagmar Hjort, Højesteretssagfører Svend Høgsbro, Fru Charlotte Norrie, f. Harbou, og Fru Carl Ottosen.
Af andre danske, der vil tage Del i Kongressen, kan vi nævne: Fru Ellen Blom, Amtmand Feddersen, Fru Astrid Stampe Feddersen. Frøken Henni Forchammer, Fru Etti Halkier, Frk. Elna Halkier, Frk Johanne Lund, Frk. Wilhelmine Rerup.


Social-Demokraten, 18. juni 1899.

Kongressen afholdes i Aar i London og aabnes den 26. Juni i Westminster Town Hall. Den varer til den 4de Juli.
Den danske Forening “Dansk Kvinderaad” er et Led af International Council of Woman. Vor danske Forening vil blive stærkt repræsenteret, da der foruden de to stemmeberettigede Delegerede møder 10 á 15 andre danske Damer.

Englænderne vil under Kongressen vise stor Gæstfrihed og har særlig indbudt Talerne til at bo i private Huse hos kendte og fremragende Kvindesags-Forkæmpere.

Programmet synes at være lagt særdeles forstandigt over de mest brændende Spørgsmaa: Opdragelse, Fagdannelse for Kvinder, Kvindes retslige Stilling, hendes politiske og sociale Arbejde. Men det er tillige af saa omfattende en Bredde, at det forekommer aldeles ufatteligt, at en halv Snes Dage vil slaa til. Under arbejderspørgsmaalet kommer særlig Børnenes Ve og Vel under Behandling – Fabriks-Love for Børnearbejdet, Børnearbejdet i Minerne og i sundhedsfarlige Fabrikker. Kvindens Arbejdstid og hendes uheldige Arbejdsvilkaar, Kvindens ulønnede Arbejde i Hjemmet. Lige Løn for samme Arbejde. Det politiske Spørgsmaal angaaende Kvinderne indtager ligeledes en stor Plads. Stemmeretten, Kvindernes Ansvar og Pligter i det politiske og i det private Liv og i organiserede Foreninger. Kvindens Arbejde i Fattigvæsenets Tjeneste, Kvindens administrative Arbejde. Om Kvinderne som Journalister, Videnskabsmænd, Kunstnere og Haandværkere. Om Kvinder som Landmænd, Gartnere og meget mere. Der findes ikke mindre end 120 forskellige Sager sat under Debat.

De praktiske Englændere har allerede for nogen Tid siden forlangt de anmeldte Taleres Billede og Manuskript til Talerne, for at disse tidsnok kan findes trykt i Kataloget. Som man deraf vil se, holder Englænderne stærkt paa Formen og ønsker deres Sager trukket paa en Snor.

For Damernes Vedkommende vil Sekretæren for “Dansk Kvinderaad”, Fru Charlotte Norrie gøre Rede for Kvindesagen herhjemme og tale om Sygeplejen, Emma Gad taler om Litteratur, Dagmar Hjort om Universitet og Fælles-Undervisning, Sophie Christensen om Haandværk, Elisabeth Gad om Landbrug, Nelly Lagesen-Hansen skal aflægge Beretning om de kvindelige Fagforeninger og tale om Børnearbejdet, Johanne Ottosen om Sundhedsplejen og Henni Forchammer om Friskolebørnenes Landophold, Højesteretssagfører Høgsbro om Formynderskab og Værgemaal – om Moderes Ret til at være Formynder overfor sine Børn. Og flere Danske vil formodentlig tage Del i Diskussionen og fremlægge deres Synspunkter paa Reformer i Kvindernes Opdragelse og Uddannelse.



Ved denne Kongres i London, vil det som sædvanlig blive de fremragende politiske Kvinder, der bliver de ledende. De engelske Kvinder har en lang Aarrækkes Øvelse i offentlig Virksomhed og staar som Talere fuldstændig paa Højde med de mest fremragende mandlige Talere i deres Fædreland.


Frederiksborg Amts Avis, 29. juli 1899.

Fru Charlotte Norrie skriver bl. a.:
Der var mødt temmelig mange Danske, og navnlig havde Danmark sendt forholdsvis mange Foredrag, hvilket man ingenlunde var misfornøjet med; endog et Foredrag (om vore Friskolebørns Landophold), som vi først indsendte i sidste Uge, blev der skaffet Plads til, da man fandt, at det var vel værd at tage med.
Lad mig nævne de danske Foredrag:
Hilsen fra Danmark ved Aabningsmødet (Frk. Henni Forchammer som Repræsentant for Dansk Kvinderaads Formand, Frk. Ida Falbe-Hansen).
Beretning om Dansk Kvinderaads Virksomhed (Undertegnede som Sekretær i D.K.R.).
Friskolebørns Landophold (Frk. Henni Forchammer).
Kvinder og Landbug (Frk. Elisabeth Gad for Frk. Charlotte Trap de Thygesen Trap).
Danske Kvinders Deltagelse i Litteraturen (Fru Emma Gad).
Fagforeninger (Fru Nelly Hansen).
Kvinders Adgang til Universitetet; (Fru Dagmar Hjort).
Fællesundervisning (Fru Dagmar Hjorth).
Kvinder som Formyndere og Værger (Højesteretssagfører Svend Høgsbro).
Kvinder som Snedkermestre (Frk. Elna Mygdal for Frk. Smedemester Sophy Christensen).
Et Korps af frivillige Sygeplejersker (Undertegnede).
Sundhedsspørgsmaal (Fru Carl Ottosen).

Desuden maatte vi nu og da aldeles uforberedte tage Ordet, naar Dirigenten midt under Mødet sagde: “Vi vil gjærne høre lidt om, hvorledes denne Sag opfattes i andre Lande. Vil f. Eks. Danmark være saa elskværdig at fortælle os noget?”
“Vil Danmark fortælle?” Ja, vi var “Danmark” herovre! En Dame jeg mødte en af de første Dage, trykkede, idet hun gik forbi, min Haand, nikkede til mig med et venligt Smil og sagde “Denmark”
“Canada!” sagde jeg ligesaa venligt, og saa gik vi videre.
Vi blev fotograferede – selvfølgelig! Præsten Miss Anna Shaw viste mig det første Aftryk og sagde, idet hun pegede paa mit Kontrafej: “Jeg vil tænke paa Dem som Danmark”.
Ja, jeg fik endog et Brev med Udskrift: “Mrs. Denmark Norrie”.
(Biff)


Her følger Emma Gads foredrag på kvindekongressen med illustrationer fra kongressens kataloger.


https://iiif.lib.harvard.edu/manifests/view/drs:13727762$8i
Women in Danish Literature.
Fru Emma Gad (Denmark).

THE participation of Danish women in literature dates far back, and what they accomplished in the period of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries is perhaps of greater value than their modern literary works, because it was the ladies in the country seats and castles who, with their maids, have collected and written down the beautiful national ballads, whose subjects are so intensely filled with sentiment and symbolism that they have formed the deepest expression of the people’s poetic conception, and are still known to all. This was, however, in few instances the original poetry of women. The first authoress of real national importance was the richly-gifted daughter of King Christian the Fourth, Eleonora Kirstine, born 1621; she was married to Count Ulfeldt, and with him involved in the accusation of high treason.
After the death of her royal father she was held in prison by his successor for about twenty years. In prison she wrote her memoirs, which were found some years ago, and in this most remarkable book she has shown the grandeur of her soul, and a knowledge of herself that is unique in Danish literature of memoirs. The writing of the women of the eighteenth century consisted almost entirely in memoirs, in which this period is so rich all over the world; but in the beginning of the nineteenth century appeared an authoress, Mrs. Gyllembourg, who in Denmark laid the foundation of the daily-life novel, a branch of literature that up to that time had been but poorly cultivated. Mrs. Gyllembourg, who was the mother of one of our most appreciated poets, Johan Ludvig Heiberg, had an enormous success by this attempt in a new branch, and was, on account of the realism of her talent, able to exercise a great influence upon the coming feminine authors, because a sharp sense of observation always will be a more prominent faculty in the feminine nature than lyric sense and poetic fancy. The woman upon whom Mrs. Gyllembourg has had the greatest influence was undoubtedly her daughter in-law, with whom she lived, Mrs. Johanna Louisa Heiberg, the greatest Danish actress that has ever lived.

Redigeret fra kataloget.
Mrs. Heiberg, who died only a few years ago, has taken a most remarkable part in Danish intellectual life. She was married to the greatest poet of the day, her house was visited daily by all the celebrities in science and art, and as an actress she had such a power over the minds of others that all who have seen her on the stage, the most ordinary and the most intellectual people alike, still mention her with the greatest enthusiasm. Whilst engaged at the theatre she wrote some small plays that are still much admired, but after retiring she wrote her memoirs, and this most interesting work has secured her a place in literature as one of our most remarkable authoresses. The book tells her own life almost like a fairy tale, how she, a poor little Jewish girl, runs about in the street, and later, by her own genius, gains a position almost like that of a queen ; but it is because the book is so full of human experience and technical knowledge of the difficult art of the stage that it is valuable, and will always remain a standard work for dramatic authors and artists.

About 1850 the first champion of the women’s cause in literature appeared under the pseudonym of Clara Rafael. She was in advance of her time. At this period the Danish women lived inside the house, merely occupied with household work, needlework, and with the duties of society; and the theories of Clara Rafael were not appreciated. But by and by, as the great wave of women’s emancipation from England and America poured forth and reached Scandinavia, of course the Danish female literature was filled with this new spirit, and I believe that Danish women in literary and æsthetic questions are now standing on the same level as their sisters in other countries.

As an instance, it may be observed that in Copenhagen there exists a ladies’ reading society, with a modern library in all languages that is the envy of men, and has a circulation of about sixty thousand volumes a year. True the present time is not very productive of important feminine authors, perhaps because the energies of women are employed in a greater number of ways than formerly. Some are occupied in journalism, both in the daily press and in the ladies’ newspapers, of which there are several in Copenhagen; others are scientific authors, as, for instance, Miss Ida Falbe-Hansen, president of the Danish Women’s Council, a highly-estimated historian of literature, and Miss Kirstine Fredriksen, who has written several most valuable psychological works, and has been awarded a prize from the university. Yet the realistic novel has its talented representative in Mrs. Erna Juel-Hansen; Mrs. Johanne Schjorring writes novels that are appreciated as good family reading, and lyric poetry is beautifully cultivated by Mrs. Blicher-Clausen, and especially by Mrs. Magdalene Thoresen, mother-in-law of Henrik Ibsen. She has not yet laid down her pen, although she has just celebrated her eightieth birthday under general homage. When only so few authoresses are to be named, the reason is, perhaps, that there exists a largely developed common intellectual life between the three Scandinavian countries. Several Norwegian and Swedish lady authors have their publishers in Copenhagen, and their works are received with the same interest as if they were Danish; for instance, the Norwegian richly-gifted writer of modern novels, Mrs. Amalie Skram, the Swedish Miss Selma Lagerlóf, who became famous throughout Scandinavia by her first attractive book in praise of her native country, and Mrs. Mathilda Melling, a Swede, whose novels from memoirs of the first French Empire are much admired.

https://archive.org/details/internationalco01womegoog
In dramatic literature Danish women are not much represented, probably because dramatic writing is so concentrated and stringent that it always will remain difficult for feminine faculties to cultivate. Yet in this combination I cannot omit to mention several comedies written by myself, some merry and others of a more serious nature, which have been played of late years with more or less success at the Royal Theatre, and on the other stages of Copenhagen, and have found their way to moat of the towns of Scandinavia. One of them was last year played in Paris at the newly started Théâtre Féministe. Of course I succeeded best in the feminine parts, and surely a woman will best be able to interpret the manner in which women speak together of the affairs that appeal to the heart and soul. A Danish authoress in this respect receives valuable assistance from the actresses. Danish actresses occupy a good and well-deserved position in Art, not only because they are well schooled in a traditional and national mode of playing, but, apart from their talent, they are excellent wives and mothers, and on this account hold a highly-respected position in home and social life. I almost think that I have found the homes of some actresses more intellectually refined than any Danish homes I have known, and our dancers of the Royal ballet are thoroughly respectable young ladies, whether married er single. As little children they come to the theatre, where they have an excellent school, and are taught languages, history, and other school disciplines. It is sometimes suggested that the talent of the Danish actresses lacks the grand style, because their own lives are deprived of passion and love affairs. Perhaps there is a grain of truth in this opinion, but on the other hand it is certain that there is an exceptional charm and refinement in the Danish dramatic art, because it is represented by intellectually cultivated and quite respectable ladies. Those who have the advantage of having seen the acting of Mrs. Bibby Hennings, of Mrs. Oda Nielsen, and Mrs. Anna Block in the plays of Ibsen, must have received the impression of the northern spirit, and will more readily realise how firm a hold the theatre has upon the minds of the people, and why it was that he, the greatest of modern dramatic poets, should prefer to have his works first played at Copenhagen. Altogether, the æsthetic life is strongly developed in Denmark, sometimes a little at the expense of practical and political interests. In Denmark, as elsewhere, opinions are contradictory, generations and classes are fighting against each other, prejudices are removed and barriers done away with. We all know that talents are more fully developed in times of strong intellectual struggles. Danish art and literature seem now to be flourishing; and as women now are taking a prominent part in actual life, there is every reason to hope that among Danish women there will arise young and fresh geniuses, who will be the pride of their country and their sex.


Efter kongressen skrev Emma Gad sin mening om Kvindekongressen forløb i Illustreret Tidende.
Det fik følgende kommentar med på vejen fra Dagens Nyheder.



Dagens Nyheder, 30. juli 1899.

Fru Emma Gad har i “Illustreret Tidende” skildret sine Indtryk fra Kvindekongressen i London. Hun fremhæver hvor de Vanskeligheder, Emnernes store Mængde og Forskelligartethed frembød.
“Her skulde alt, hvad der overhovedet staar i Forbuindelse med Kvinders Liv i alle Forhold og Himmelegne – saavel Kina som Danmark, alt, lige fra Religion til Hønseavl, fra Litteratur til Modepynt, Dameklubber, Politik, Skolevæsen og Skjortesyning, Gud veed hvad ikke drøftes og gennemgaaes i en Uge.
Der er muligvis mangfoldige mandlige Individer, der ville føle sig svært overlegne overfor denne henrivende kvindelige Upraktiskhed. Og det er ogsaa vanskeligt at tilbageholde et lille Smil ved Tanken om de mange, mange Ord, som Damerne nødvendigvis have maattet brænde inde med. Det har unægtelig været lige haardt nok.
Men mon Overlegenheden egentlig er paa sin rette Plads? De Fleste af Dem, mine Herrer, vilde dog næppe have Kvinden anderledes. Disse mangfoldige Interesser, store og smaa imellem hverandre, de ere paa Kvindesjælen, hvad Baand, Blomster og Smykker ere paa en Kvindes Dragt. De høre nu en Gang med til det, som dog alle Mænd føle sig tiltrukne af: det evig Kvindelige.
Og ret beseet er det snarere et Fortrin hos Kvinden fremfor Manden end det Modsatte.
Thi den moderne Mand er slet ikke nogen gjennemgaaende underholdende Fremtoning. Han er, hvad man i Korthed kunde kald Fagmand. Faget er forskelligt: nogle ere Fagmænd i Politik, Andre i Skotøj og atter Andre i Cyklesport eller L’hombre – men hvad der gjennemgaaende kærtegner den moderne Mand, er det, at han helt gaar op i en enkelt Interesse, graver sig ned i den, lever og dør for den – og bryder sig sejt om det øvrige, brogede Liv udenfor hans snævre Horisont.
Overfor en saadan Mand staar da Kvinden med sine mange Interesser som Bæreren af det Almenmenneskelige. Hun er den, der knytter Livet til Ideen, som betager Manden noget af hans Ensidighed og blander Kortene en Smule.
Mændene burde derfor ikke føle sig overlegne overfor Kvindens store Virkefelt. Maaske kan hun til syvende og sidst ikke værge hele Marken, saaledes som hun gjerne vilde. Men det, at hun flyver vidt omkring, sætter hende dog maaske i Stand til des bedre at værge sin liden Tue.